Although it took a while for people to take notice, now more than , individuals around the world hold the PMP designation. It was updated it in , , , , and most recently in as the fifth edition.
In , the organization reported more than , members in over countries. Recently, an office was opened in Mumbai India. Because of the importance of projects, the discipline of project management has evolved into a working body of knowledge known as PMBOK — Project Management Body of Knowledge. So if you want to get grounded in project management, PMBOK is the place to start, and if you want to make project management your profession, then you should consider becoming a PMP.
PMBOK is the fundamental knowledge you need for managing a project, categorized into 10 knowledge areas:. This is the big framework for managing projects and if you want to be effective in managing projects, then you need to be effective in managing each of the 10 knowledge areas that make up PMBOK see Figure 4.
Agile project management methodologies Scrum, extreme programming, Lean Six Sigma, others also have certifications. As discussed above, projects are divided into components, and a project manager must be knowledgeable in each area. Each of these areas of knowledge will be explored in more depth in subsequent chapters. For now, lets look at them in a little more detail to prepare you for the chapters that follow. The start-up of a project is similar to the start-up of a new organization. The project leader develops the project infrastructure used to design and execute the project.
The project management team must develop alignment among the major stakeholders—those who have a share or interest—on the project during the early phases or definition phases of the project. The project manager will conduct one or more kickoff meetings or alignment sessions to bring the various parties of the project together and begin the project team building required to operate efficiently during the project. During project start-up, the project management team refines the scope of work and develops a preliminary schedule and conceptual budget.
The project team builds a plan for executing the project based on the project profile. The plan for developing and tracking the detailed schedule, the procurement plan, and the plan for building the budget and estimating and tracking costs are developed during the start-up.
7 Popular Project Management Methodologies And What They’re Best Suited For
The plans for information technology, communication, and tracking client satisfaction are also all developed during the start-up phase of the project. Flowcharts, diagrams, and responsibility matrices are tools to capture the work processes associated with executing the project plan.
The first draft of the project procedures manual captures the historic and intuitional knowledge that team members bring to the project. The development and review of these procedures and work processes contribute to the development of the organizational structure of the project. This is typically an exciting time on a project where all things are possible. The project management team is working many hours developing the initial plan, staffing the project, and building relationships with the client.
The project manager sets the tone of the project and sets expectations for each of the project team members. The project start-up phase on complex projects can be chaotic, and until plans are developed, the project manager becomes the source of information and direction. The project manager creates an environment that encourages team members to fully engage in the project and encourages innovative approaches to developing the project plan.
The project scope is a document that defines the parameters—factors that define a system and determine its behaviour—of the project, what work is done within the boundaries of the project, and the work that is outside the project boundaries. No template works for all projects. Some projects have a very detailed scope of work, and some have a short summary document.
The quality of the scope is measured by the ability of the project manager and project stakeholders to develop and maintain a common understanding of what products or services the project will deliver. The size and detail of the project scope is related to the complexity profile of the project.
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A more complex project often requires a more detailed and comprehensive scope document. The scope document is the basis for agreement by all parties. A clear project scope document is also critical to managing change on a project. Since the project scope reflects what work will be accomplished on the project, any change in expectations that is not captured and documented creates the opportunity for confusion.
One of the most common trends on projects is the incremental expansion in the project scope. Increasing the scope of the project is a common occurrence, and adjustments are made to the project budget and schedule to account for these changes. Scope creep occurs when these changes are not recognized or not managed. The ability of a project manager to identify potential changes is often related to the quality of the scope documents. Events do occur that require the scope of the project to change. Changes in the marketplace may require change in a product design or the timing of the product delivery.
Changes in the project schedule, budget, or product quality will have an effect on the project plan. Generally, the later in the project the change occurs, the greater the increase to the project costs. The project manager also analyzes the cost and schedule impact of these changes and adjusts the project plan to reflect the changes authorized by the client. Changes to the scope can cause costs to increase or decrease.
The definition of project success often includes completing the project on time. The development and management of a project schedule that will complete the project on time is a primary responsibility of the project manager, and completing the project on time requires the development of a realistic plan and the effective management of the plan. On smaller projects, project managers may lead the development of the project plan and build a schedule to meet that plan. On larger and more complex projects, a project controls team that focuses on both costs and schedule planning and controlling functions will assist the project management team in developing the plan and tracking progress against the plan.
To develop the project schedule, the project team does an analysis of the project scope, contract, and other information that helps the team define the project deliverables. The milestone schedule establishes key dates throughout the life of a project that must be met for the project to finish on time. The key dates are often established to meet contractual obligations or established intervals that will reflect appropriate progress for the project.
For less complex projects, a milestone schedule may be sufficient for tracking the progress of the project. For more complex projects, a more detailed schedule is required. Although the project scope is the primary document for developing the WBS, the WBS incorporates all project deliverables and reflects any documents or information that clarifies the project deliverables. From the WBS, a project plan is developed. The project plan lists the activities that are needed to accomplish the work identified in the WBS. The more detailed the WBS, the more activities that are identified to accomplish the work.
After the project team identifies the activities, the team sequences the activities according to the order in which the activities are to be accomplished. The logic diagram represents the logical sequence of the activities needed to complete the project. The next step in the planning process is to develop an estimation of the time it will take to accomplish each activity or the activity duration.
Some activities must be done sequentially, and some activities can be done concurrently. The planning process creates a project schedule by scheduling activities in a way that effectively and efficiently uses project resources and completes the project in the shortest time. On larger projects, several paths are created that represent a sequence of activities from the beginning to the end of the project.
Project Management Framework (PMF)
If the critical path takes less time than is allowed by the client to complete the project, the project has a positive total float or project slack. Understanding and managing activities on the critical path is an important project management skill. To successfully manage a project, the project manager must also know how to accelerate a schedule to compensate for unanticipated events that delay critical activities.
Compressing—crashing—the schedule is a term used to describe the techniques used to shorten the project schedule. During the life of the project, scheduling conflicts often occur, and the project manager is responsible for reducing these conflicts while maintaining project quality and meeting cost goals. The definition of project success often includes completing the project within budget. Developing and controlling a project budget that will accomplish the project objectives is a critical project management skill.
Although clients expect the project to be executed efficiently, cost pressures vary on projects. On some projects, the project completion or end date is the largest contributor to the project complexity. The development of a new drug to address a critical health issue, the production of a new product that will generate critical cash flow for a company, and the competitive advantage for a company to be first in the marketplace with a new technology are examples of projects with schedule pressures that override project costs.
The accuracy of the project budget is related to the amount of information known by the project team. In the early stages of the project, the amount of information needed to develop a detailed budget is often missing. To address the lack of information, the project team develops different levels of project budget estimates.
The major input into the conceptual estimate is expert knowledge or past experience. A project manager who has executed a similar project in the past can use those costs to estimate the costs of the current project. Project results and tangible deliverables should focus on the customers' business requirements which are work assignments and associated resource needs necessary to support an organization's mission and goals. As described by the Project Management Institute PMI , project management Knowledge Areas address critical concerns and practices that must be taken into account in project planning and execution.
The PMI Knowledge areas are:. A look at our syllabus reveals much of the class is organized based on these knowledge areas. It is not possible to create a project plan without a detailed look at the plan's scope, timing, and cost.
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In addition to these, we will discuss all of the other important knowledge areas you must be familiar with to be a successful project manager. Tools and techniques can help to increase understanding in any of these knowledge areas, but are most vital in the core knowledge areas. We will explore a variety of these techniques and discuss their implementation in GIS projects. Although project management software packages can facilitate the use of these tools and techniques, the same techniques have long been used with pencil and paper.
Preparing a business case for a large project can take weeks or months and will need input from other departments within UWE.
7 Popular Project Management Methodologies And What They’re Best Suited For | Zenkit